Purine is taken continuously from food and drink during the daily diet; It is a type of chemical compound found in concentrated levels in seafood, meat, vegetables such as spinach, tea, coffee, and fermented beverages. The increase in the blood level of purine, one of the basic building blocks of the human body, is in parallel with the increase in the amount of it. Purine, which is formed as a result of the breakdown of nucleoprotein, which is the molecular unity formed by proteins with nucleic acids, is also a natural compound found in the blood. The end product of purine metabolism is it. In simpler terms, the waste formed after digesting purine-rich foods is called uric acid. While one-third of the emerging from the food digested by the stomach and intestines is digested by the gastrointestinal tract and excreted through the feces; the remaining two-thirds is excreted through the excretory system. Although the amount of it in the blood varies depending on age, gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, on average, women have 4.1 mg/dL, and men have 5 mg/dL of it. The amount of uric acid excreted daily is directly related to how rich a diet is in purines. In other words, while people who eat purine-rich diets excrete up to 2 grams of uric acid a day, this value is much lower in people who eat foods that do not contain purine. An increase in that in the blood above the reference range is defined as hyperuricemia, while a decrease below the reference value is called hypouricemia. The rise and fall of It, which causes many diseases, is a health problem that must be taken seriously. Before answering the question of why uric acid rises, it is necessary to understand what uric acid is.
What is uric acid?
Purine, sausage, bacon, salami, sausage, duck, sardines, shellfish, small fish, red meat, beans, wheat, wheat bran, legumes, fermented beverages, as well as beverages that are frequently consumed during the day such as tea and coffee. That occurs when the purine, which is produced by the consumption of these foods and is already in the blood, is broken down in the body. Purine, which is produced by digesting food in the digestive system, is also formed as a result of the cellular cycles, such as normal cell destruction. Purine, which is found in different parts of the body, reaches the liver by mixing with the blood and is converted into that by the liver. A small amount of it is also produced by other organs. Therefore, the most important organ where uric acid is produced is known as the liver. A small part of uric acid reaches the intestine with intestinal secretions and is excreted as feces after being washed by the intestinal flora. However, the most important breakthrough place of it is the kidneys. While the kidneys, which are part of the urinary system, or in other words, the excretory system, constantly filter the blood in the circulatory system, releasing beneficial substances back into the circulation; It allows waste materials such as uric acid to be thrown out of the body through urine. Three organic substances are excreted out of the body; urea, creatinine, and uric acid. About 60% of the uric acid in the human body is excreted and regenerated every day. However, the accumulation of that cannot be excreted through urine in the body causes uric acid elevation. This condition is defined as hyperuricemia. In the presence of hyperuricemia, which is in excess in the body, accumulates in the joints and forms crystals. In this condition, which causes gout, also known as inflammatory joint disease, swelling occurs in different parts of the body, visible to the naked eye from the outside. Meanwhile, the acid rate in the blood and urine rises and this causes many different ailments. In addition, three important kidney diseases such as acute uric acid nephropathy, kidney stone disease defined as nephrolithiasis, and chronic urate nephropathy may occur depending on its elevation. In the presence of diseases such as kidney damage and kidney failure, it will inevitably increase. Uric acid tests are done in a laboratory setting by looking at blood. With this test, the amount of it in the blood is measured, and the state of kidney functions and the amount of cell destruction are learned.
Why does uric acid rise?
The rise of it, which should be excreted out of the body with urine, as a result of not performing purine destruction in a healthy way or by not being able to be eliminated from the body, leads to high uric acid. High levels of it in the body cause crystallization in the joints, causing joint inflammation-related disorders such as gout, kidney stones, acute uric acid nephropathy, chronic urate nephropathy, and rheumatoid arthritis. Gout disease, which is one of the most common disorders of its elevation, occurs with symptoms such as pain, redness, heat increase, and swelling in the joints, and the big toe joint is often affected. Elevated may be genetic, as well as due to the use of diuretics or, in other words, diuretic drugs. At the same time, diabetes, obesity, heart failure, many kidney diseases, some blood diseases such as anemia, and alcohol consumption also cause uric acid levels to rise. Many different causes such as under-functioning of the thyroid gland called hypothyroidism, some cancer types, and treatments, tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), immunosuppressant drugs such as cortisone, psoriasis defined as psoriasis, pregnancy poisoning, shock diets, and malnutrition. causes it to rise. Although flu and flu-like symptoms are usually observed when the level rises in the blood, some of the symptoms listed below may also occur:
- joint pains
- Reduced urge to urinate
- Shortness of breath
- Swelling in the arms and legs
- Weakness and fatigue
- clouding of consciousness
- Burning sensation in the abdomen
- Kidney stone
- Kidney failure
- uric acid crystals
How does uric acid decrease?
One of the questions that physicians frequently face is how to reduce it. The easiest way to balance it is to drink plenty of water. Consuming low-purine foods, fibrous foods, low-fat milk, and yogurt helps lower its levels. Removing meat products from the diet and avoiding fermented beverages also help control high uric acid. However, it is extremely important to investigate why the uric acid level is high and to reveal and treat the underlying cause, if any.
What is low uric acid?
A low blood level of It, which is produced by the breakdown of purines, is also defined as hypouricemia. Many different liver diseases such as Wilson’s disease, kidney inflammations, Fanconi syndrome, Parkinson’s, diabetes, different types of cancer, multiple sclerosis, some endocrinological diseases, and genetic causes can cause a decrease in its level. However, deficiency of some minerals, diet poor in purine, not getting enough protein, side effects of some regularly used drugs, alcohol use, and pregnancy are among the factors that cause low uric acid. Low uric acid alone does not cause certain symptoms. However, since the symptoms of the diseases that cause low uric acid are in the foreground, the person may associate these symptoms with low uric acid. The underlying cause of low disease should be investigated and treated after the focus is detected.
For a good life, do not forget to have your health checks regularly.
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