What is urea? What does low and high urea mean?

By | 6 June 2021

Protein is one of the basic building blocks of metabolism, which is synthesized by the body and taken through food. Protein, which is a structure and support element, is also a metabolic regulator. Protein, which has an important place in the regulation of water and electrolyte balance, also plays an important role in the transmission of nerve impulses. The protein, which provides cell growth and development, is also used by cells for organ and tissue development. Protein taken with foods such as red meat, milk, eggs, yogurt, and cheese is digested by breaking down into amino acids in the stomach and intestines. Every day, 35 to 100 grams of protein taken through food and 100 to 200 grams of protein synthesized in the body are digested. The released nitrogen is excreted in the feces as undigested protein and appears in the urine as it and uric acid. Urea, the end product of protein metabolism, makes up most of the nitrogenous compounds in the urine. Although the most important physiological synthesis site of it, or in other words, the place where it arises, is the liver, the waste material formed is filtered by the kidneys and thrown out of the body through urine. If urea cannot be filtered sufficiently by the kidneys and cannot be excreted out of the body, the amount of it in the blood rises and creates a toxic effect for the body. Before moving on to urea height and low, it is necessary to understand what area is.

What is urea?

Protein taken through food is digested by the stomach and small intestine. The protein that comes to the liver through the blood is broken down into ammonia or, in other words, waste material. This waste material, which is produced by the cycle in the liver, is converted into it, making it less harmful. İt, the end product of protein entering the human body through food, is released into the blood from the liver. This waste structure, which reaches the kidneys through the blood, is filtered by the kidneys and thrown out of the body through urine. However, if the kidneys cannot perform this function correctly, That accumulation occurs in the body, which creates a toxic effect. Normally 100 ml. There should be less than 50 mg of urea in the blood. In laboratory tests, the normal that value is between 10 and 40 mg/dL, and the BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) value is between 5 and 20 mg/dL. İt below this value indicates that the needed protein cannot be digested by the body or that it is malnourished in terms of protein. In cases where urea, which is a waste material that occurs with the breakdown of protein in the liver, cannot be excreted by the kidneys, urea elevation occurs. High urea amount can be a symptom of many diseases. The question of what is it in the blood, which is frequently asked by patients, can be answered in the shortest way as the waste material produced as a result of protein digestion. The test is also known as the BUN test. BUN, which is a laboratory test, is done by looking at the blood taken from the vein. Thus, it is checked whether the liver and kidney function correctly.

What is low urea?

Although low blood urea is a rare condition, it mostly occurs with irregular and malnutrition. This situation, which occurs as a result of not being able to meet the amount of protein needed by the body with the foods taken, can also occur with a diet rich in carbohydrates. Excessive consumption of water, use of antibiotics and anabolic steroids, and exposure to high amounts of radiation also cause the urea level to remain below normal values. Liver disorders, absorption problems, pancreatic insufficiency and cancer, diabetes, cirrhosis, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, Crohn’s disease in the small intestine, and Zollinger Ellison Syndrome (ZES) are among the diseases that trigger low urea. In addition, removal of part or all of the pancreas also leads to low urea.

What are the symptoms of low urea?

Rarely, low urea is mostly caused by a protein-poor diet or excessive water consumption. Some drugs used in connection with liver diseases and the use of antibiotics are among the factors that cause a decrease in that level. Diarrhea and short bowel syndrome can also lead to low urea. Although the symptoms encountered in the case of low urea are usually associated with diseases that cause low urea, they are mostly characterized by frequent urination and foamy urine.

Urea deficiency treatment

Urea is formed after the protein from food reaches the liver through the blood. Although the area, which is filtered in the kidneys and excreted out of the body through urine, does not seem to be a significant problem, the underlying factors must be examined. Blood urea level below normal values ​​is a rare condition and is mostly seen due to malnutrition. If the underlying cause of low urea is malnutrition and excessive water consumption, the specialist physician aims to increase the urea level by arranging a suitable diet for the patient. However, if there is a different underlying cause, if necessary, a multidisciplinary approach can be used to eliminate the discomfort that causes low urea and prevent low urea.

What is the area height?

Ammonia, which is the waste material that comes out as a result of the digestion of protein in the body, is broken down by the liver and converted into it. Although up to 10% of the total amount of it formed is excreted through sweat, most of it is filtered by the kidneys and excreted out of the body through urine. High urea as a result of the blood test rarely means that the protein is broken down more than needed, but it is often a harbinger of an existing disease related to the kidneys. Muscle breakdown due to problems in the heart and blood circulation, thyroid hormone disorders, digestive system problems, irregular or inadequate nutrition, long-term hunger, and excessive exercise are among the reasons that cause high urea in the BUN test. İt elevation may also increase in the presence of febrile diseases or infections. In addition to all these, thirst and stress, which are defined as dehydration, are among the factors that cause an increase in the amount of it in the blood. The normal value for urea is 10 to 40 mg/dL, while the normal value for BUN is 5 to 20 mg/dL.

What are the symptoms of high urea?

The fact that the amount of urea, which is the end product of protein metabolism, in the blood is above the values ​​considered normal, maybe the harbinger of many health problems, especially kidney diseases. Urea elevation, which must be kept under control, causes many changes in the body that can be noticed by the person. Some of the symptoms of high urea are listed below:

  • Weakness and fatigue
  • muscle weakness
  • Headache
  • loss of appetite
  • weight loss
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • The smell of ammonia on the breath
  • dry mouth
  • burning sensation in the mouth
  • Irregular sleep
  • respiratory irregularity
  • confusion
  • uncontrollable hiccups
  • Anemia

Urea elevation treatment

High urea is an important health problem that can cause many ailments. The reasons underlying the high level of it in the blood are evaluated in detail by the specialist physician. After the focus causing the high urea level is determined, this cause is eliminated with a multidisciplinary approach when necessary. However, in some cases, the cause of high urea may be a protein-rich diet or dehydration. In such cases, the urea level is reduced by creating a patient-specific diet program.

For a healthy life, do not forget to have regular health checks.

 

 

 

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