Pneumonia is known as pneumonia among people; In short, it is an inflammation of the lung tissue. It occurs due to various microorganisms, especially bacteria. In some types of pneumonia, there is a direct risk of transmission from sick people to healthy people. However, the disease mostly occurs when microbes in the patient’s own mouth, throat, or digestive tract reach the lungs. These microbes, which do not normally cause disease, cause pneumonia in people with weakened body defenses. Therefore, risk factors that break the body resistance of the person rather than contamination play a role in the formation of it.
What are the symptoms of pneumonia?
There may be chills-chills, high fever up to 39-40 ° C, cough, dirty, inflamed (green, yellow, rust-colored) sputum, and flank pain. In some types of pneumonia, an insidious start occurs. There may be symptoms such as dry cough, fever, nausea, vomiting, headache, following anorexia, weakness, joint and muscle pain that continues for a few days. Patients with this complaint should definitely consult a doctor. İt is a health problem that should not be neglected. It is known that early diagnosis and treatment without delay reduce deaths. If the patient’s complaints are compatible with pneumonia, it can be diagnosed by examination and chest x-ray findings. If necessary, blood and sputum tests can be done.
Is pneumonia contagious?
Flu and similar viral respiratory tract infections that predispose to pneumonia are highly contagious. They can be spread by sneezing and coughing and can be passed on to other people through items such as glasses, handkerchiefs, forks, and spoons contaminated with mouth and nose secretions. İt is among the most common and most fatal diseases in the world and in our country. Pneumonia can be more fatal, especially in infants, children, the elderly, and people with another known disease. Several risk factors make it easier for a person to get it. Pneumonia can be prevented if it is possible to avoid them.
- Risk factors that facilitate the development of pneumonia in adults
- Advanced age
Chronic diseases: Lung diseases (COPD, bronchiectasis, lung cancer), heart diseases, kidney diseases, liver diseases, diabetes, nervous system diseases (muscle diseases, strokes, dementia), dysphagia (jaw, muscle, nerve diseases, tumors, esophagus diseases), immune system diseases (AIDS, blood and lymph node cancers)
- Alcohol intake
- Long-term surgeries
- Flu outbreaks
What are the ways of preventing pneumonia?
To prevent pneumonia, negative factors that facilitate pneumonia formation should be corrected. For this purpose, appropriate follow-up and treatment of chronic diseases, avoiding stress, providing balanced nutrition and hygienic shelter conditions, controlling alcohol, tobacco, and drug addiction, and reducing the risk factors that cause mouth and stomach contents to enter the respiratory tract = aspiration.
During flu epidemics, which can cause or facilitate pneumonia, it is important to reduce contact in the crowd, use masks and vaccinate people who can infect the flu, especially in the high-risk group.
The influenza virus itself can cause pneumonia, as well as facilitate the emergence of It types due to other microorganisms. The cases in which the flu is severe and fatal are mostly the cases in which pneumonia accompanies the flu. Therefore, to prevent pneumonia and related deaths, influenza epidemics should also be prevented.
Vaccines have been developed to prevent the flu. These vaccines provide protection for a year. Flu vaccines should be given intramuscularly in one dose each year in September, October, or at the latest in November. Flu vaccines should be administered to people who are at high risk of contracting the flu or when the flu is severe and fatal.
Among the causes of pneumonia, the most common microorganism in the world is Streptococcus pneumonia. There is a vaccine prepared against this bacterium, which we call pneumococcus. Pneumococci can also cause infections other than pneumonia, especially in the upper respiratory tract. Although this vaccine is not complete, it can provide partial protection when applied to high-risk people. The vaccine is administered intramuscularly. It is repeated after 5 years.
In most cases, pneumonia can be treated at home. In severe cases, elderly patients, patients requiring oxygen therapy or intensive care support should be hospitalized. Treatment depends on the patient. The results are promising when treatment is started early and in cases that can be treated on an outpatient basis. However, the mortality rate is high in severe pneumonia cases whose diagnosis and treatment are delayed.
Pneumococcal Vaccine Recommended People:
- Those with the normal immune system and chronic diseases such as heart disease, lung disease, diabetes, alcoholism, cirrhosis, cerebrospinal fluid leakage
- Persons with an insufficient immune system and increased risk of pneumococcal disease, those who have had their spleen removed, those with some blood diseases, chronic kidney disease, and those who have undergone organ transplantation
- Adults with AIDS
- 65 and over
- Flu and pneumococcal vaccines are not given during the course of a high fever disease.
- Flu vaccine should not be administered to those who are allergic to eggs. Both vaccines are very safe. Pain and redness may develop where the vaccine is applied. There may be some side effects such as fever, malaise, malaise, these are temporary and mild.
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