What is blood pressure?

By | 7 May 2021

The heart pumps the blood in the circulatory system to the body by working continuously. As the heart pumps blood to the whole body through the aortic vein, a certain amount of tension builds up in all veins. Intravascular tension, defined as blood tension, is of great importance for the vital tissues and organs to be adequately nourished and maintain their normal functions. The oxygenated blood in the lungs first comes to the heart and from here is pumped to the body via the aortic vein. The aorta, which can be defined as the main vein emerging from the heart, is divided into many branches. These large vessels are known as arteries or arteries. Large vessels also branch and become thinner arterioles, or in other words, connect to medium-sized vessels and capillaries known as capillaries in the latest medical language. Thanks to all this vascular network, different cell types in the body obtain the energy they need by being oxygenated. After the oxygen carried in the veins is released into the body, the dirty blood returns to the heart through a vein or vein, and the heart sends it to the lungs to re-oxygenate the blood. That is sent to the veins by the tension created during the pumping process of the heart. Meanwhile, the pressure created is at the highest level. The heart muscle then relaxes and less pressure remains within the blood vessels during this time. The tension that occurs when the heart beats are defined as systolic blood tension, while the tension remaining in the vessels with the relaxation of the heart is defined as diastolic tension. When blood tension is measured, data for both tension types are obtained.

What is blood pressure?

The heart, which consists of a total of 4 chambers, works non-stop to pump 5 liters of blood per minute to the body. The 2 chambers in the upper part of the heart are called the atria, and the lower two chambers are called the ventricles. Blood in the blood vessels enters the heart from the right atrium and is transferred to the right ventricle. With the contraction of the heart, blood is sent to the lungs for oxygenation and returns to the heart after cleansing. It is then pumped from the left ventricle of the heart through the aortic vein to be sent to the whole body. In other words, during a single contraction, blood is pumped from the right ventricle to the lungs and from the left ventricle to the aortic vein. With the contraction of the heart, clean that is sent to the body with certain blood tension. The pressure that builds up within the arteries is defined as blood tension. The causes the veins to widen somewhat. During the space between both contractions of the heart, the veins keep the blood flow by applying pressure to the blood. The pressure that occurs during the heart’s pumping of blood and the blood tension that continues to continue the blood flow in the veins are evaluated separately.

What is systolic blood pressure?

When the heart pumps blood to the body, or in other words, when the heart contracts, the tension in the blood vessels is at the highest level. This type of pressure is defined as systolic blood pressure. The systolic blood tension value, also known as large blood pressure among people, is expected to be in the range of 120 to 130 mmHg on average. This range is due to the difference in that level from person to person. In the presence of different health problems or with increasing age, the vessels may lose their flexibility. In this case, the person’s blood pressure value becomes high.

What is diastolic blood pressure?

The heart beats an average of 100,000 times a day, continuously pumping blood throughout the body. In addition to the systolic blood pressure that occurs when the heart contracts, there is some pressure in the veins between both beats of the heart. The veins that expand with the effect of the blood pressure caused by the contraction of the heart apply pressure to the blood during the heart’s pulse interval, allowing the blood flow to continue. This is in the veins is known as diastolic blood pressure or small blood pressure as it is commonly known among people. It is considered normal for diastolic blood pressure to be in the range of 70 to 90 mmHg.

How is blood pressure measured?

İt can be measured with a device called a sphygmomanometer or blood tension gauges. The use of a sphygmomanometer is recommended for the most accurate measurement. The cuff of the sphygmomanometer device should be placed 2.5 to 3 cm above the inside of the elbow and wrap around the arm. The stethoscope should be clamped under the sleeve and pressed gently. Then, the sphygmomanometer air is inflated to 20 to 30 mmHg above the level at which blood pressure disappears. The control valve should open slightly and air should be vented to a decrease of 2-4 mmHg per second. The first sound heard as the air is evacuated determines the systolic blood pressure. The value at which the sound is inaudible is considered to be diastolic blood pressure. The measurement should be made 3 times in total, two minutes apart. People with a blood tension value less than 130/85 mmHg should have a measurement every 2 years. It is recommended that people with blood tension in the range of 130-139 / 58-89 mmHg should have a measurement once a year, and those with blood pressure in the range of 140159 / 90-99 mmHg every 2 months.

What should be considered during blood pressure measurement?

In addition to many diseases, blood tension measurement, which is also used in evaluating the general health status of the person, must be measured accurately to be able to measure the blood pressure healthily and to monitor the person’s blood pressure. For accurate blood tension measurement, attention should be paid to:

  • The person should not exercise, eat, drink caffeine, or smoke half an hour before the blood tension measurement.
  • The person should rest for 5 minutes before blood tension measurement.
  • The measurement should never be made over the clothes.
  • The pouch inside the sleeve should completely surround the arm.
  • The arm on which blood pressure is measured should be at heart level and supported by the elbow, the other arm, or a pillow.
  • The stethoscope should be placed over the artery and kept balanced. The stethoscope should not be pressed too hard on the person’s arm.
  • The hand should be released and the fist should not be made.
  • It should not be talked about during measurement.
  • During blood tension measurement, your legs should not be crossed.
  • Systolic and diastolic pressures should be read at least three times for an accurate measurement value.

What should be the ideal blood pressure value?

Although tension varies from person to person, the ideal systolic tension is in the range of 120 to 130 mmHg. Diastolic blood tension, known as small tension, is in the range of 70-90 mmHg, which is considered to be the ideal level. Lower values ​​can be considered normal in young people and children.

What is low blood pressure?

Low tension, which is mostly not harmful, reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Unless there is a significant pressure drop, this does not cause any complaints in the person. However, a sudden drop in It can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, weakness, and fainting.

What is high blood pressure?

İt is popularly known as high tension. A blood tension value above 140/90 mmHg is also called hypertension. This condition, which can be seen at almost any age, mostly develops due to factors such as excessive salt consumption, obesity, diabetes, genetic factors, stress, cardiovascular, thyroid, adrenal gland, and kidney diseases. People with high blood pressure are recommended to consume less salt, control their weight, and exercise regularly. Uncontrolled high blood tension can lead to serious health problems such as kidney failure, heart attack, and brain hemorrhage.

If you have a problem with your blood pressure, do not neglect to apply to the nearest health institution and have your checks done. We wish you healthy days.



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