Urinary tract infection is the name given to various inflammatory conditions that occur in the urinary tract. It occurs more frequently in the lower urinary tract. In lower urinary tract infections, the inflammatory condition is seen in the urinary tract called the bladder and urethra, where urine is carried out of the kidneys. Urinary tract inflammation that occurs in the bladder is called cystitis. Cystitis is the most common form of infection in the lower urinary tract. Lower urinary tract infections are generally harmless.
The upper urinary tract consists of the kidneys and a channel called the ureter that connects the kidneys to the bladder. Infections occurring in this part are more dangerous. It is most commonly seen in the renal pelvis, where the ureters meet the kidneys, and the inflammation of this area is called pyelitis. If, in addition to pyelitis, the kidney itself is inflamed, then pyelonephritis is spoken of.
What causes a urinary tract infection?
The underlying cause of urinary tract inflammation is, in most cases, an infection caused by bacteria. These are the intestinal bacteria of the Escherichia coli type that often rise up the urethra and originate predominantly from one’s own feces. More rarely, a sexually transmitted pathogen, virus, or fungi such as gonococcus and chlamydia may also be the causative agent.
What are the symptoms of urinary tract infection?
Symptoms of urinary tract infection typically manifest as burning or frequent urination when urinating. But it can be seen without any symptoms. In 5 to 10 out of a hundred women with urinary tract inflammation, the disease progresses completely without symptoms. Common symptoms of urinary tract infection;
- Burning or pain in urine
- The need to urinate frequently,
- Weakening of urine flow,
- Difficulty holding urine,
- Blood in urine
- It can be listed as pain in the lower abdomen.
In upper urinary tract infections with kidney involvement;
- Kidney tenderness,
- Flank pain
- Symptoms such as general weakness can also be seen.
However, these symptoms are not seen in all cases with kidney involvement. Instead, complaints such as burning and pain in the urine, which are typical symptoms of lower urinary tract infections, and the need to urinate frequently are at the forefront.
How is urinary tract infection treatment?
Uncomplicated inflammations of the lower urinary tract can be treated easily and heal quickly with timely intervention. Although 30 to 50% of uncomplicated urinary tract infections heal spontaneously and without damage, oral antibiotic therapy is recommended to reduce unpleasant clinical symptoms more quickly and completely eradicate pathogens. In addition, infections that develop in the urinary tract with kidney involvement can cause permanent damage if not treated early.
- If there is pain or a burning sensation during urination, if it can only be cut, if it contains blood, or if severe abdominal pain is added later, a doctor’s visit is recommended.
- Uncomplicated urinary tract infection treatment is usually done with antibiotics.
- After taking antibiotics, the inflammation begins to subside within a few days.
- In addition to antibiotics, pain relievers or antispasmodic medications can be used.
- Recurrent urinary tract infections require high doses of antibiotic therapy.
- Treatment is planned in accordance with the conditions for pregnant women, diabetics, immunocompromised people, and children.
What is good for urinary tract infection?
People with urinary tract infections should regularly wash their bladder by drinking plenty of water. For this, it is recommended to take at least 2 liters of fluid a day. Thus, the proliferation of the active bacteria and the progression of the infection are prevented. It is best to consume water or herbal teas to support healing. On the other hand, since coffee, alcohol, and lemon juice can irritate the bladder, their consumption should be restricted.
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