Vaginal Bleeding and Pregnancy

By | 28 March 2021

Vaginal Bleeding and Pregnancy

Vaginal bleeding usually occurs in the first 3 months of pregnancy and is not always a problem. However, bleeding in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters is mostly the result of a complication.

Some basic things about bleeding need to be known:

  • When bleeding occurs, the amount should be followed with the help of a pad. How much and what type of bleeding should be known.
  • Absolutely, tampons or anything else should not be inserted into the vagina, vaginal douching and sexual intercourse should not be performed.
  • The doctor must be informed.

First Half of Pregnancy

The bleeding frequency in the first half of pregnancy is 20-30%. There may be bleeding other than miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and molar pregnancy. This reasons:

  • Implantation Bleeding: The baby’s implantation bleeding occurs 10-12 days after fertilization. Sometimes it may be very little and sometimes similar to menstrual bleeding. Because of this bleeding, women may not realize that they are pregnant.
  • Infection: Bleeding may occur due to infection in the vagina or urinary tract.
  • Post-Intercourse: Especially in women with cervical wounds.

Low

Bleeding may be a sign of miscarriage, but it does not mean that it will be low immediately after bleeding. Bleeding is seen in 20-30% of normal pregnancies in early pregnancy. Half of the women who have bleeding during this period do not have a miscarriage. Approximately 15-20% of all pregnancies result in miscarriage and occur up to 12 weeks, with the majority being more in the first 8 weeks.

Low Findings:

  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Cramp-like pain in the groin (stronger than menstrual pain)
  • A part of your vagina

The majority of miscarriages cannot be prevented and the most important reason is that the baby is disabled. Miscarriage does not mean that there will be no healthy babies later or that you are abnormal.

Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy outside of the uterus. Most ectopic pregnancies happen in tubes. The possibility of ectopic pregnancy is 1 in 60 pregnancies.

External Pregnancy Findings:

  • Cramping pain in the groin
  • Sharp pain in the abdomen
  • Low beta hCG levels
  • Vaginal bleeding

Women at Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy:

  • Having an infection in your tubes
  • Previous ectopic pregnancy
  • Previous abdominal surgery

Mol Pregnancy (Grape Pregnancy)

It is one of the rare causes of early bleeding. Abnormal tissue development occurs instead of an embryo. It is known as gestational trophoblastic disease. Among the people, the grape is called pregnancy because it looks like a grape.

Mole Pregnancy Findings:

  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Beta hCG higher than normal
  • Baby heartbeat is not seen
  • The image of grape grains on ultrasound

Second Half of Pregnancy

The cause of mild bleeding is due to cervical wounds and enlargement. Late period bleeding may cause serious dangers for the pregnant and the baby. In this period, you should inform your doctor immediately.

Placenta Abruption

Vaginal bleeding occurs as a result of the separation of the placenta from where it sticks in the uterus before birth. It is seen in 1% of pregnant women and mostly occurs in the last weeks.

Placenta Abruptia Findings:

  • Bleeding
  • Abdominal pain

Pregnant Women with Risk for Placenta Abruptia:

  • Having a previous pregnancy
  • 35 years and older
  • Previous placenta abruption
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Hypertension
  • Impact and injury to the abdominal area
  • Cocaine use

Placenta Previa

The placenta settles in the lower part of the uterus and at the exit of the cervix. It is a very serious situation. Approximately 1 in 200 pregnant women. Painless bleeding occurs.

Pregnant Women at Risk for Placenta Previa:

  • Having a previous pregnancy
  • Cesarean delivery
  • Having other operations on the uterus
  • Twin pregnancy

Early birth

Vaginal bleeding can be a sign of labor. Before birth, engagement may come. If it happens in the early period (before 37 weeks), it will be a harbinger of premature birth.

Findings of Early Action:

  • Engagement
  • Pressure in the groin or lower abdomen
  • A different pain in the lower back than before
  • Regular contraction and hardening of the uterus