The Method to Prevent Advanced Stage in Early Stage Bladder Cancer: Transurethral Resection

By | 17 February 2021

Bladder cancer, the second most common type of cancer among urological cancer types, occurs as a result of the proliferation of cells on the inner surface of the bladder that store urine in the body. Although it is also seen in women, bladder cancer is more common in middle and elderly men. Complaints of the patient are of great importance in the diagnosis of bladder cancer. Blood in the urine, frequent urination, and burning during urination are among the symptoms of cancer.

Prevents the tumor from progressing to an advanced stage
Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor, which has not spread beyond the bladder lining, is a method that determines both the diagnosis of early-stage bladder cancer and the treatment type and whether additional treatment is required according to the condition of the tumor. Superficial bladder tumors tend to recur by 70%; It may develop into high-grade T1 tumors limited to the mucosa. In this case, the treatment moves to the next stage. However, while the diagnosis is made by transurethral resection of the bladder tumor at an early stage, at the same time, recurrent resections in these tumor types exclude patients from larger operations before the tumors turn into invasive forms.

Favorable early results
Before and after bladder tumor transurethral resection, which is of great importance in effective bladder tumor treatment and diagnosis, the doctor should make a careful plan and evaluate the patient, and additional radiological tests such as ultrasound and tomography should be performed. For the diagnosis phase of transurethral resection of the bladder tumor, in which successful results are obtained in T1 and early-stage tumors, urethroscopy is performed beforehand. A biopsy is taken from the mass and hyperemic suspicious areas in the bladder with urethroscopy. Depending on this, the type and degree of cancer are revealed. Later, transurethral resection of the bladder tumor can proceed. In the application performed under general or epidural anesthesia, a more controlled operation is performed with plasma kinetic energy. Better hemostasis can be achieved and the risks of perforation and obturator nerve stimulation are minimized. Also, since burning carbonization will be less common in the tissues obtained, histopathological diagnosis is more clear in terms of the depth of the tumor.

It is processed according to the size of the cancer cell.
In the treatment process, all cancer and the bladder wall beneath it are removed in one piece to prevent the growth and spread of cancer cells. For larger cancers progressively; First exophytic cancer, then the underlying bladder wall, and then the tumor base is cut and sent to pathology separately. After the resection is completed, the tumor edges are cauterized. The urethral catheter is attached and the procedure is completed. Extracted tissues, samples were taken for cold-cup biopsy, and cytology is sent to pathology. Depending on the size of the tumor, patients should remain probed for 1-2 days.

The most common surgical method
Transurethral resection, which is the first step of the approach to bladder cancer, was performed for the first time in 1962 by Jones and Swinney. It is the most common urological cancer surgery today. Bladder tumor transurethral resection has features that do not comply with oncological surgical principles; Superficial bladder tumors can recur frequently. Bladder cancer treatment is one of the most expensive surgical treatments for solid malignant cancer.