By | 4 April 2021


Nutrition is the ability of a person to take and use the elements necessary for growth, development, healthy and productive life for a long time. Adequate and balanced nutritional habits acquired in childhood are very important for a quality and long life.

Food allergies and intolerances start from infancy and affect human life. Attention should be paid to the nutrition of individuals with food allergies from a very young age and it should be ensured that the foods that individuals remove from their diets due to food allergies do not lead to insufficient and unbalanced nutrition.

Everything we eat can cause a positive or negative reaction in the body. If you are intolerant of certain food and continue to eat, your body will cause an inflammatory reaction that can occur in a variety of conditions that affect your lifestyle, such as headache, chronic pain, digestive system disorders.


We can call “food reactions” to the immunological or non-immunological picture created in the body by the foods we take in our body or by other factors that can be taken with food.

We can divide the food reactions into two.

The first group is “food intolerance”, in which there is no allergic symptom in your body and an abnormal result of other mechanisms that do not have an overreaction of the immunological system.

Food intolerance can be seen as a result of metabolic disorders in the body, toxic substances in the food, pharmacological properties of the food, or infectious causes. According to the estimation of the British Allergy Foundation, 45% of the society in Europe and the USA experience health problems related to food sensitivity.

The second group is the hypersensitivity reactions of the immunological system against food. These hypersensitivity reactions may occur as a result of reactions in which immunoglobulin E (IgE) molecules, which are an important part of the defense system, play the leading role, as well as reactions without Ig E molecules, can be observed. This group is defined as “Food allergies”.

Inflammation (inflammation) caused by the immune system’s response to foods that vary according to the person, different diseases (obesity, metabolic syndrome, chronic iron deficiency, gas, bloating, indigestion, diarrhea, celiac disease, chron’s disease, hypertension, dermatitis, eczema, acne, hyperthyroidism, autism). The common cause of these diseases is chronic inflammation.

Studies show that food allergies affect about 1 percent of adults and about 8 percent of children. Food intolerances are much more common. The most common specific food intolerance is Lactose intolerance and its incidence is high in our country.


1. Diet elimination; Some foods are eliminated as a result of the history taken from the patient. The success of these diets depends on the correct determination of allergens and the elimination of all foods containing allergies responsible for the diet. It is necessary to be careful during diet elimination, especially in children. In order not to affect the growth and development of the child, it is important to replace the food with a suitable one. Also, it is another important point not to cause vitamin and mineral deficiency in the child.

2. Skin tests (prick, scratch, intradermal, safe)

3. Total and Specific IgE measurement (RAST)

4. Double-Blind Plesoba Controlled Food Provocation Test: It is accepted as the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy. If there is a food suspected before loading tests, it is removed from the diet for 15 days. If the symptom disappears, direct RAST or provocation tests are applied. Eggs, peanuts, strawberries, tomatoes, seafood) are cut. The observation period after the test is 2 hours for reactions that develop through IgE.

5.Lymphocyte Proliferation test

6. Basophil Histamine Release Test

7. Food Intolerance Test

A food intolerance test is a diagnostic test used to determine foodstuffs that can cause chronic inflammatory reactions. Although there are different types of the test, due to the accuracy and variety, the most ideal is the test performed on the blood taken from the arm. With this allergy test, Ig antibodies formed in the body against a variety of foods are detected with all subgroups. Food-specific Ig panels are used as diagnostic tools in food sensitivity.

The body’s defense system produces antibodies against food that touches us. If there is a problem in the body’s immune system against food, it begins to form Ig-type globulins called antibodies, which combine with the proteins of the food that are not digested. In food intolerance tests, these foods are determined and it is revealed exactly which food touched the individual.

Some of the tests that are commonly used today are the York test, the Pinner test, and the Cambridge test, and these tests identify foods that increase the levels of IgG antibodies.

Also, another popular test method LTT (Lymphocyte Transformation Test) is a type of laboratory test used in the diagnosis of Type IV allergy (hypersensitivity) against foods, metals, and various allergens.

Food intolerant patients should be advised to avoid dietary triggers as soon as possible for 3-4 weeks to improve symptoms. At the same time, to maintain nutritional adequacy during dietary exclusion, patients should be informed about suitable alternative foods with a similar nutritional profile. In this process, dietary diversity should be increased, nutritional adequacy should be ensured, and the food intake, which has the least negative impact on the gastrointestinal microbiota, should be followed up gradually.