Osteoporosis means an increase in bone fragility or fracture risk as a result of a decrease in bone mass and deterioration in its internal structure. Although it is most common in postmenopausal women, it can be seen in almost all ages and especially in older men. Risk factors include age, gender, genetic predisposition, poor calcium diet, closed clothing, low exposure to sunlight, sedentary life, excessive alcohol, smoking, caffeine consumption, use of drugs such as bone-weakening cortisone, and some chronic diseases. Also, osteoporosis may occur secondary to the course of some diseases. These are some endocrinological disorders, digestive system disorders, rheumatic diseases, organ transplantation, and bone marrow-related diseases.
Osteoporosis is generally known as an insidious disease, meaning that although the bone mass has decreased enough to develop a fracture, no symptoms may occur. The most common complaint is diffuse bone pain, more prominent in the back. While it was during the activity and passed with rest, it can become continuous in more advanced cases.
As the disease progresses, a shortening in height and an increase in roundness in the back are noticeable. Generally, patients understand that their height is shortened by the length of their clothing. As the process progresses slowly, it may not be noticed quickly. When fractures occur in patients, sudden and severe pain occurs. The most common place is fractured in the form of a collapse in the back vertebrae. This is followed by wrist and hip bone fractures. Spinal fractures cause forward bending and hunching of the trunk with severe pain. In the early stages, there may be severe pain even when breathing.
The goal is to prevent fracture development
The aim of osteoporosis treatment is to prevent fracture development. First of all, diseases that may cause secondary osteoporosis and/or vitamin/mineral deficiencies that increase osteoporosis should be eliminated. After the fracture develops, treatment is difficult and costly. Therefore, women in the post-menopausal period, which constitute the largest risk group, and men over the age of 65 should have regular bone mineral density measurements. This method is very easy and reveals the decrease in bone mass and the risk of fracture. If a fracture risk is detected, a drug that suppresses bone destruction and/or supports production is started.
Cement reinforcement for broken bones
If the fracture has developed, appropriate conservative or surgical treatments are applied according to the location and severity. Especially in cases that cause severe pain, difficulty in moving, or even breathing, especially in spinal fractures, with a small attempt to eliminate these complaints, a kind of cement injection can be made into the collapsed vertebra to provide rapid relief. While hip bone (femur) fractures often require surgical treatment, wrist fractures rarely require surgery and are often treated with a cast.
Measures that strengthen bones and prevent fractures
– In addition to a diet rich in Vitamin-D / calcium, an exercise program to maintain body posture and strengthen muscles is given to every woman in the menopause period and elderly men. During exercise, it is essential to load the bones and thus stimulate new bone formation.
– It is vital to take the necessary precautions to prevent falls. Necessary environmental arrangements should be made at home, especially in bathrooms that pose a great risk for falls.
– If there is a balance disorder and a history of frequent falls, practices, and training are provided for this.
– Every day 20-40 minutes of brisk walking is necessary for everyone.