How many types of COVID 19 vaccine is there?

By | 17 April 2021

How many types of COVID 19 vaccine is there?

What are coronaviruses? Why is it important?

As long as humanity exists, there is a risk that viruses will infect. Conspiracy theories suggesting that the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a man-made virus that is circulating. It has been proven that this is not correct, that genome sequencing is natural, and that it is a well-designed virus that cannot be made by man. Such conspiracy theories reduce the energy and discipline of fighting disease. There have been many epidemics in history that caused viral pandemics. 50 million people died in the Spanish flu between 1918 and 1920.

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can cause disease in animals or humans. The SAR-CoV-2 virus from this family causes New Coronavirus Disease (COVID 19). The New Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) was first seen in a group of patients who developed respiratory symptoms (fever, cough, shortness of breath) in late December 2019 in Wuhan Province, China. It was first defined on January 13, 2020. The World Health Organization (WHO) identified the novel coronavirus outbreak (COVID 19) as a PANDEMIC on March 11, 2020. For a viral epidemic to be defined as a pandemic in humans, there should be roughly 3 criteria: 1. It should be a new virus, 2. It should be transmitted from person to person easily and continuously, 3. It should affect many countries. It has been defined as PANDEMIA because it fits these definitions.

March 11, 2020, was the date declared by WHO as a pandemic in the world.

As of March 1, 2021, there were 114 million COVID 19 patients and 2.53 million deaths all over the world.

2. How is the COVID-19 infection progressing?

The disease generally affects people aged 60 and over more. The disease is rare and mild in children. There have been no deaths in children so far. But it can be seen in all age groups and causes fatal consequences.

– 80 percent of the cases have mild disease.

– 20% of cases are treated in hospital conditions.

– The mortality rate is 2%.

3. Who are the People Most Affected by the Disease?

– Healthcare workers: the highest risk group, PCR positivity has reached 30% in our country.

– Those over the age of 60

– People with serious additional chronic medical conditions: Heart disease, Hypertension, Diabetes, Obesity, Chronic Respiratory disease, Cancer, kidney disease

– Community residents: schools, barracks, prisons, nursing homes

4. What should be done to prevent the spread of the disease?

-Personal precautions: mask, distance, hygiene

-Social: vaccination

5. What is the Vaccine and How Does It Work?

Viruses, bacteria, etc. that are capable of causing diseases in humans and animals. Biological products developed by purifying the disease-causing properties of microbes, weakening them, or eliminating the effects of toxins secreted by some microbes are called vaccines. The vaccine is administered to healthy and at-risk people. With this shape, the body recognizes microbes or toxins that do not harm itself and develops a defense against them. Thus, later when it encounters the real microbe; It fights with the pre-developed defense system and the person does not get sick. This person is now immune to that disease. Vaccination does NOT cause illness in healthy people. Therefore, our most important weapon in preventing disease is vaccination.

There are vaccines produced by 3 methods:

  1.  Inactive vaccine: A weakened, reduced-effect version of the virus is included in the vaccine formula. These types of vaccines, which aim to develop the body’s immune defenses when faced with the weak state of the virus, are called “inactive vaccines”.
  2.  mRNA vaccines: Vaccine formulas containing genetic building blocks such as RNA are being developed. These vaccines aim to activate some enzymes that assist the immunity with genetic components taken from the virus and to awaken immune responses at the cell level.
  3. Vector vaccines: adding genetic components from virus strains to the target virus. Virus vectors aim to create an immune response in the body through virus components that are transferred to a weakened and non-reproducing version of another virus.

Those who are vaccinated can carry the disease in the nasal mucosa. For this reason, he should pay attention to issues such as mask and distance. Otherwise, they infect their relatives without being sick.

7 What are the Side Effects After the COVID-19 Vaccine?

Until now, serious side effects have not been encountered in both clinical trials conducted for COVID-19 vaccines and current vaccination practices. Post-vaccination side effects are often mild. These; Mild side effects such as fatigue, headache, fever, chills, muscle/joint pain, vomiting, diarrhea, pain, redness, swelling in the area where the vaccine was applied. However, although rare, allergic reactions may occur.

What To Do When Experiencing Side Effects:

  • Pain/swelling/redness in the area where the vaccine is applied: cold application and paracetamol tablet can be used.
  • Fatigue: Rest and adequate fluid intake
  • Mild fever, chills: rest, adequate fluid intake, paracetamol tablet
  • Headache, muscle-joint pain: paracetamol
  • Vomiting, diarrhea: If plenty of fluid supplements are required, serum can be given.
  • Each of our vaccinated citizens is kept for at least 30 minutes after vaccination to observe possible side effects.

2. Vaccine: administered 30 days after the first vaccination.

9 What is the COVID-19 Vaccine National Implementation Strategy?

The Ministry of Health has made vaccination planning in 4 stages by dividing our citizens to be vaccinated into groups according to priority.

During vaccination, vaccination is made in the following order.

1 stage:

A. healthcare workers

B. Elderly people staying in shelters and their employees

C. Individuals over the age of 65 (5 years of age are decreasing, starting from 90 years, respectively)

Stage 2:

A. Priority sectors for the sustainability of service (MoD, ministry of interior, critical staff, police-private security, Ministry of Justice, prisons, Teachers and faculty members, food sector employees, transport sector employees

Our citizens aged 50-64

Stage 3:

A. Those with chronic disease (A1: 40-49 years old, A2: 30-39 years old, A3: 18-29 years old)

B. Other groups (B1: 40-49 years old, B2: 30-39 years old, B3: 18-29 years old)

Stage 4:

Those who do not get vaccinated when it is time to vaccinate

10.Who is not given Covid 19 vaccine?

  •  Vaccination is not recommended if there is a history of allergy/anaphylaxis against any substance contained in the vaccine.
  •  It is recommended to postpone the administration of the vaccine for a while (up to 15 days) during attacks of high fever (38ºC and above), illness with an unclear picture, and chronic diseases.
  •  Flu and/or pneumonia vaccine can be vaccinated at least 2 weeks after the vaccine.
  • For people who have had COVID-19 before and who have a positive PCR test in the system; The vaccine can be administered 6 months after the illness. Health workers are exempted from this rule because they are in the high-risk group.
  •  There is no data on the administration of inactive COVID-19 vaccine during breastfeeding. Breastfeeding women with a high risk of having COVID-19 can be vaccinated upon their request.
  • Children under the age of 18 are not in the priority risk group determined by the Ministry of Health Coronavirus Scientific Committee, so children are not currently vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine.
  • If the contact persons are among the priority risk groups after completing the quarantine process, they can be vaccinated.
  •  vaccine administration is not mandatory. Getting vaccinated is a person’s responsibility to society.