Chronic rhinitis: causes, symptoms, treatment
A chronic runny nose may simply be the result of a sinus condition or allergy. But sometimes it signals serious illness – even cancer. Therefore, with chronic rhinitis, you need to contact an ENT specialist.
Chronic rhinitis is something that lasts continuously or recurs as attacks. Older people often suffer from chronic rhinitis. But it can happen at any age. If you have a chronic runny nose, see an ENT specialist. It is most commonly associated with sinus disease or allergies or vasomotor disorders. However, it can signal serious illness, even cancer. Chronic rhinitis often affects people with cardiovascular disease, liver and kidney disease, and diabetes. Chronic rhinitis can be caused by hormonal disorders and vitamin A deficiency.
Chronic runny nose – symptoms
Chronic rhinitis symptom:
- flowing watery, mucous, or mucopurulent discharge
- residual emission
- swelling of the mucous membranes
- sneezing attacks with profuse watery discharge
- labored breathing
- sometimes loss of smell
- bad smell from the nose
- presence of scabs
Treatment for chronic rhinitis depends on the cause, so you need to see your doctor about it.
Chronic runny nose after frequent infections
This type of chronic rhinitis is the result of repeated viral and bacterial infections of the respiratory tract. They can be caused by immune deficiencies or anatomical defects such as a deviated nasal septum.
Very common infections cause sinus infections, and chronic sinusitis is also the cause of chronic rhinitis. An ENT specialist will recommend the appropriate treatment for the infection.
If we are dealing with an immunodeficiency, he may decide to take medications that stimulate the immune system. Surgery may be necessary to correct anatomical defects.
Chronic vasomotor rhinitis
Contrary to appearances, allergies are not the most common cause of chronic rhinitis. Nearly 30 percent of patients suffer from chronic vasomotor rhinitis associated with an overactivity of the nasal mucosa, which is not caused by allergies.
Sneezing attacks, watery discharge, and swelling of the mucous membranes are caused in these people by:
- temperature changes
- chemical irritation (air pollution, tobacco smoke)
- intense aromas and even dry, cold, or hot air
Sometimes a runny nose is caused by a change in body position. These nasal pranks, which cause chronic rhinitis, are caused by changes in nerve conduction, receptor hypersensitivity, epithelial damage, or the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the mucous membrane.
Treatment should be chosen by a physician based on the cause. Most often these are pharmacological drugs. Surgical procedures, such as cryosurgery, are sometimes used to remove diseased tissue or disrupt abnormal nerve connections.
Chronic runny nose during pregnancy
Chronic rhinitis sometimes occurs during pregnancy. It is caused by hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy, especially in the latter part of pregnancy. High levels of estrogen are thought to alter the functioning of the chemicals responsible for the reactions of the nasal mucosa. The mucous glands become overactive and the blood supply to the mucous membrane increases. These changes and the symptoms of chronic rhinitis disappear after delivery and return to normal hormonal activity.
Chronic hormonal rhinitis can also occur during adolescence, some phases of the menstrual cycle, with hypothyroidism, and in people over 65.
Allergic chronic rhinitis
Chronic allergic rhinitis is diagnosed by a doctor after allergic tests and the determination of the allergen. Treatment consists of avoiding contact with the allergen and taking antihistamines. Desensitizing treatment (specific immunotherapy) is also possible in an allergy clinic.
Atrophic chronic rhinitis
It is chronic rhinitis caused by mucosal disorders. It gets thinner and doesn’t do its job. This type of disorder may be indicated by a dry nose and a feeling of nasal congestion, as well as the presence of odorous discharge and scabs. There are also nosebleeds. One of the forms of atrophic rhinitis is ozena, chronic rhinitis that occurs mainly in women at the age of menopause. This produces a very unpleasant odor from the nose and scabs.
Chronic hypertrophic rhinitis
This type of chronic rhinitis occurs when the lining of the nose thickens. Growths and polyps are formed on it. In this case, the most effective form of treatment is the removal of hypertrophic lesions of the mucous membrane.
Chronic rhinitis – treatment
In addition to treatment that is appropriate for each type of chronic rhinitis, it is important to keep your nose open and clear while treating it. All people with chronic rhinitis have impaired natural cleansing function.
Systematic rinsing of the nose and sinuses with solutions recommended by a doctor, purchased from a pharmacy, or with physiological saline or sea salt solution gives very good results. You should also take care of properly humidifying the air in the rooms where we are, and avoiding smoky places such as high concentrations of exhaust fumes or car dust, as these all aggravate the symptoms of chronic cold.
Nasal steroids are also often used in the treatment of chronic rhinitis (allergic and infectious). This group of drugs is effective, but in some patients, it can cause dry noses, irritation, or mild bleeding. To protect the nasal mucosa, it is worth using a shield. For this purpose, you can use over-the-counter aerosols available over the counter. Those containing pharmaceutically refined olive oil and vitamin E soothe irritations, moisturize and support the regeneration of the nasal mucosa.